The multiple pathways that are involved in neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in prostate cancer (PCa) are poorly elucidated. Evidence suggests that several environmental triggers induce NED leading to the adaptation of PCa to its close environment to maintain cell proliferation. Nevertheless, there is conflicting evidence regarding the prognostic role of NED in PCa.
In this review, we aimed to summarize all available data about NED and to assess the prognostic role of NED in disease progression and therapy resistance, and its role in routine clinical practice. This review was based on articles found through a PubMed literature search between 1993 and 2013. The study outcome measure was the effect of NED on oncologic outcomes at each PCa stage.
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