Urachal adenocarcinoma represents the third most common histological type of non-urotelial bladder cancer. A very low incidence of this disease and the lack of prospective studies have led to a rich and heterogeneous treatment history. Currently, the standard of care for these patients is represented by partial cystectomy en bloc with resection of the urachal ligament and total omphalectomy. The aim of this article is to present our experience and results in the management of patients with urachal adenocarcinoma. Between 2005 and 2015, 16 patients have undergone surgical treatment for urachal adenocarcinoma in “Fundeni” Clinical Institute and Madrid University Hospital “Infanta Sofia.” Partial cystectomy was performed in 11 (68.76%) patients, while radical cystectomy en bloc with omphalectomy was performed in 5 (31.25%) patients, which were not amendable to a limited resection. The Sheldon classification was used, as it provides appropriate disease staging and is the most commonly utilized. Postoperative pathological results showed that 7 (43.75%) patients had localized tumors, and more than one-third (37.5%) of the patients had locally advanced Sheldon III disease, while 3 patients had distant metastasis at the time of surgery. Lymph node involvement was present in 3 patients (18.75%). Mean follow-up time was 2.5 years, ranging from 4 months to 7.6 years. Three patients (18.75%) were lost to follow-up, without any documented signs of local or systemic recurrence and were cancer free at the time of the last evaluation. In cases with lymph node involvement, local recurrence or distant metastasis, patients underwent cisplatin- or 5-fluorouracil-based salvage chemotherapy. Surgical treatment represents the gold standard, while adjuvant chemotherapy has a limited impact on overall survival. The utility of navel resection is questionable due to the rarity of direct invasion or local recurrence.
Surgical management of urachal tumors: Can the umbilicus be sparred in localized disease?